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Music History: 1000 Years

Paris to Rome to Vienna to London to New York

Spring 2003


General Description

This course will attempt to trace the rise of the Western European musical empire from church chant to classical symphony and the empire's subsequent fall via romantic music drama into new world, modernism & soundtrack. Participants will be asked to discover sonata form by ear, detect a hidden cantus firmus, or contrast English and Italian madrigalism. This course will give you a broad understanding of what is called "classical" music in American culture and why.


Class Meetings

  • Tuesdays & Thursdays, 2-4pm
  • Jennings 101

  • Required Text & Recordings

  • Kerman & Tomlinson, LISTEN, Brief Fourth Edition, Worth Publishers, 33 Irving Place, New York; and accompanying 6 CDs OR cassettes. (Softcover Value-Pak bundle, ISBN: 1-57259-130-7 or 3.)
  • "The Benedictine Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos: Chant," Angel CDC 7243 5 55138 2 3

  • Course Requirements

    You are not required to have any prior musical knowledge, talent or expertise to take this course, but I have encouraged everyone who participates this term to have achieved a basic level of music literacy. On principle though, whether or not you read and even if you read: anyone willing to work hard is qualified to take this course and entirely capable of excelling. However, it is extremely important for your performance in this course that you commit now to make time for your listening homework so that you accomplish it in a timely fashion and do not get behind. You cannot "cram" music. You must give it time to sink in. (Listening homework may include written answers to questions handed out in class which must be handed in at the next class meeting.)

    You will be required to attend at least 3 concerts on or off campus and to maintain a description of your listening experience in a concert journal. Keep a copy of the program from each concert (or some written document, preferably created by someone other than you if at all possible, e.g. at Music Workshop you could ask the performers to write down the titles of the pieces they performed) to accompany your reports. You will be asked to hand in your concert journal three times during the semester: the first time to confirm vocabulary and general listening strategy only, and then twice again towards the final grade (credit will be given for overall progress–so please hand in the entire journal every time). Programs should remain attached to the journal. And I prefer that all written assignments be typed.

    You will be required to write a term paper of 5-10 pages analyzing one piece of music in depth by ear, after such time in the course as you have the preparation to make such a study. You will choose the piece of music from a list to be announced and subsequent to a brief individual meeting with me to discuss your choice and method of approach.

    I will give midterm and final examinations based on the listening assignments, the lectures and the reading. I will also give announced and unannounced listening quizzes to be sure you can identify the music of study by ear and discuss concepts related to what you hear.

    I will monitor and evaluate your class attendance and participation. No matter what, come to class and be willing to get involved in discussions–ask questions. Speak to me concerning emergencies.


    COURSE CALENDAR

    DATE

    DISCUSSION

    PREPARATION

    2/25/03

    Introduction

    Music Fundamentals

  • the 8 parameters:
  •  

    2/27/03

    Music Fundamentals (cont’d):

    MEDIEVAL MUSIC:

  • Introduction
  • Plainchant: composition and heritage
  • Gregorian chant: Kyrie XI ["Chant," The Benedictine Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos, Angel CD, Selection #10]

    Gregorian chant: Viri Galilei[(LISTEN)*CD 1–1-2]

    Qur’anic chant [(LISTEN)*CD 1–7] and Hawai’ian chant [(LISTEN)*CD 1–8]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 5 pp. 46-50,
    and pp. 60-61 "Sacred Chant"
  • * If not otherwise specified, all listening selections are from the LISTEN CD

    3/4/03

    Music Fundamentals (cont’d):

  • this is a time to ask questions if there's anything you are unclear about
  • MEDIEVAL MUSIC (cont’d):

  • Charlemagne, the fixing of the chant and subsequent outgrowths from fixed chant (cantus firmus)
  • The Mass & the Divine Offices
  • Hildegard von Bingen, abbess, composer & seer
  • Smetana, The Bartered Bride [CD 4–27-32]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 1-4
  • Hildegard, Columba Aspexit [CD 1–3]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 5 "The Middle Ages" p. 51
  • and find a piano to complete your homework

    3/6/03

  • Secular music: our earliest records
  • Trouvères & troubadours, phenomenon of courtly love
  • Organum:
  • How it may have come about & where it has led us
  • Leonin & Perotin, The Notre Dame School
  • 1st CONCERT JOURNALS DUE

    Bernart de Ventadorn, La Dousa Votz [CD 1–4]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 5 pp. 52-54
  • Perotin, Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia [CD 1–5]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 5 pp. 55-57
  • 3/11/03

  • Ars Nova, Guillaume de Machaut, motets & late medieval polyphonic and rhythmic complexity, isorhythm, hockets, forme fixe
  • Machaut, Motet: Quant en moy [CD 1–6]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 5 pp. 57-59
  • 3/13/03

    RENAISSANCE MUSIC:

  • Guillaume Dufay: melodic paraphrase, homophony, triadic harmony (the new consonance)
  • Dufay, Ave Maris Stella [CD 1–9]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 6 pp. 62-66
  • 3/18/03

    THE HIGH RENAISSANCE: Josquin Desprez, imitative polyphony

    Desprez, Missa Pange Lingua [CD 1–10-11]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 6 pp. 67-71
  • 3/20/03

    Giovanni Pierlugi da Palestrina, THE LATE RENAISSANCE & The Counter-Reformation

    Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass [CD 1–12]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 6 pp. 71-74 top
  • 3/25/03

    LATE RENAISSANCE Secular Music

  • The Madrigal, Thomas Weelkes, Claudio Monteverdi, Gesualdo, text-painting, developments in texture & harmony
  • Instrumental Dance Forms
  • Weelkes, Madrigal: As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending [CD 1–13]

    Anon., Galliard Daphne and Kemp’s Jig [CD 1–14 & 15]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 7 pp. 74-77, also "Music and Early European Colonialism" pp. 78-79
  • 3/27/03

    EARLY BAROQUE MUSIC:

  • Introduction
  • The birth of opera:
  • Claudio Monteverdi: the Janus figure, looking back to the Renaissance and forward to the Baroque
  • Henry Purcell
  • aria & recitative
  • basso continuo
  • 2nd CONCERT JOURNALS DUE

    Gabrieli, Motet: O magnum mysterium [CD 1–16]

    Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea, Act I, "Tornerai?," "Speranza, tu mi vai" [CD 1–17-18]

    Purcell, Dido and Aeneas, Act III, final scene, "Thy Hand, Belinda," "When I am laid," "With drooping wings" [CD 1–19-20]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 7 "The Early Baroque Period" pp. 80-92
  • 4/1/03

    BAROQUE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC:

  • Arcangelo Corelli, the birth of the sonata (Early Baroque)
  • Developments in rhythm, dynamics, tone color, melody and form
  • Concerto Grosso, ritornello form, variation form, Antonio Vivaldi & Johann Sebastian Bach (Late Baroque)
  • Corelli, Sonata da Chiesa (Trio Sonata) in F [CD 1–21-24]

    Vivaldi, Concerto in G [CD1–27-29]

    Sudanese Song Doogus Indrus and waza trumpet ensemble Al Shammasha [CD 1–25-26]

    Bach, Brandenburg, Concerto No. 5, I; Fugue in C-# Major; Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, Air, Gavotte and Bourrée [CD 2–1-5]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 7 "The Early Baroque Period" re-read pp. 83-85 "Style Features…", then pp. 92 bottom-95 "The Rise of Instrumental Music", and pp. 96-97 "African Ostinatos"
  • Unit III introduction "The Eighteenth Century" p. 99 (all)
  • Ch. 8 "Prelude: The Late Baroque Period" pp. 100-114 (all)
  • Ch. 9 "Baroque Instrumental Music" pp. 115-121 top (up to J. S. Bach)
  • 4/3/03

    J. S. Bach & BAROQUE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC (cont'd)

  • Fugue, dance suite, French overture, the birth of binary form
  • Developments in harmony, texture
  • Listen again to Bach, Brandenburg, Concerto No. 5, I; Fugue in C-Sharp Major; Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D, Air, Gavotte and Bourrée [CD 2–1-5]

    Japanese gagaku orchestra Etenraku [CD 2–9]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 9 pp. 122-135 and pp. 136-138 "The Court Orchestra of Japan"
  • 4/8/03 PLAN DAY (no classes)  

    4/10/03

    BAROQUE VOCAL MUSIC

  • George Frideric Händel
  • J.S. Bach
  • Opera, Oratorio, Chorale cantata and prelude
  • Händel, Julius Caesar, "La giustizia"; Messiah, "There were shepherds," and Hallelujah Chorus [CD 2–10-12]

    Bach, Cantata No. 4 & Chorale Prelude, "Christ lag in Todesbanden" [CD 2–13-16]

    Japanese kabuki play, Dojoji (excerpt) [CD 2–17]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 10 "Baroque Vocal Music" pp. 139-153 (all) and pp.154-155 "Japanese Musical Drama"
  • 4/15/03

    MIDTERM (1 hr.)

    Introduction to Classical Music

  • sonata form
  • ASSIGNMENT OF TERM PAPER

    all the preceding

    4/17/03 LONG WEEKEND 4/16/03-4/20/03  

    4/22/03

    CLASSICAL MUSIC

  • 1st Viennese School: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Franz Joseph Haydn (& Ludwig van Beethoven)
  • The Symphony
  • sonata form
  • theme and variations
  • rounded binary form, minuet-trio form
  • classical rondo form
  • TERM PAPER TOPIC CHOICES DUE

    Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550, I [CD 3–1-6]

    (and ends of Mozart Piano Concerto No. 17 in G, K. 453, III [CD 3–17] and aria "Ho Capito" [CD 3–18 0:45] for reference while reading Ch. 11)

    Haydn, Symphony No. 88 in G, all movements [CD 3–18-35]

    Balinese gamelan pelegongan, Bopong (I Lotring) [CD 3–7]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 11 "Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment" pp. 156-168 (all)
  • Ch. 12 "The Symphony" pp. 169-187 and pp. 188-191 "Musical Form in a Balinese Orchestra"
  • 4/24/03
  • Ludwig van Beethoven, his 5th symphony and how it changed the world, as a Janus figure–the last classical composer & first romantic composer
  • (if time)

  • The classical sonata, concerto & string quartet
  • Mozart, Piano Sonata in B Flat, K. 570, III [CD 3–8-10]

    Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 17 in G, K. 453, III [CD 3–11-17]

    Schubert, String Quartet in A minor [CD 4–5-6] (pp. 255-256)

  • LISTEN, Ch. 13 "Other Classical Genres" pp. 192-204 top
  • Beethoven, Symphony No.5 [CD 3–21-35] (all)

    Indian Karnatak kriti, "Marakata marivarna" (Tyagaraja) [CD 3–36-37]

  • LISTEN, Unit IV "The Nineteenth Century" (all) and pp. 224-226 "Musical Performance and the Musical Work"
  • 4/29/03

    PLAN WEEK

    Individual conferences on term papers—show 1st draft

    • Complete listening & diagram work on term paper.
    • Show listening diagrams at individual conference
    5/1/03

    5/6/03

  • Mozart & opera buffa
  • Mozart, Don Giovanni Overture, Act I, "Ho capito," "Alfin siam liberati," "Là ci darem la mano"[CD 3–18-20]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 13 pp. 204-209
  • 5/8/03

    Introduction to ROMANTIC MUSIC

  • Life after Beethoven
  • Lieder, song cycles
  • Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann
  • Piano miniatures
  • Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt
  • Music journalism, travel and historicism
  • Schubert, "Erlkönig" [CD 3–38] and String Quartet in A minor [CD 4–5-6] again

    R. Schumann, "Im wunderschönen Monat Mai" & "Die alten, bösen Lieder" from Dichterliebe [CD 3–39-40]

    C. Schumann, "Der Mond kommt still gegangen" [CD 6–38]

    R. Schumann, "Eusebius" & "Florestan" from Carnaval [CD 4–1-2]

    Chopin, Nocturne in F-Sharp, Op. 15, No. 2 & Polonaise in A, Op. 40, No. 1 [CD 4–3-4]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 15 "Prelude: Music after Beethoven: Romanticism" pp. 227-240
  • Ch. 16 "The Early Romantics" pp. 241-257
  • 5/13/03

  • Programmatic music
  • Felix Mendelssohn
  • Hector Berlioz
  • TERM PAPER DUE

    Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique, V [CD 4–7-13]

    Pygmy molimo song [CD4–14]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 16 pp. 257-263 and pp. 264-265 "Music and the Supernatural"
  • 5/15/03
  • Early romantic opera: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, Weber
  • Giuseppe Verdi and Italian opera
  • Richard Wagner and music drama, the Gesamkunstwerk
  • The Music of the Future & Reactions
  • LATE ROMANTICS

  • Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
  • Bedrich Smetana
  • Johannes Brahms
  • Gustav Mahler
  • Verdi, Aïda, Act IV, scene ii, [CD 5–1-4]

    Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, Prelude [CD 5–5-9] and Act I (philter scene) [CD 4–47-49]

    Beijing opera: The Prince who Changed into a Cat [CD 2–36]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 17 "Romantic Opera" pp. 266-281 and pp. 282-283 "Conventions of Chinese Opera"
  • Tchaikovsky, Romeo and Juliet, Overture-Fantasy [CD 4–15-26]

    Smetana, The Bartered Bride [CD 4–27-32]

    Brahms, Violin Concerto, III [CD 4–33-38]

    Mahler, Symphony No. 1, III, Funeral March [CD 4–39-46]

    Piece for Chinese qin, The Drunken Fisherman [CD 2–37]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 18 "The Late Romantics" pp. 284-302 and pp. 304-305 "Chinese Program Music"
  • 5/20/03
  • QUIZ (on everything since the midterm)
  • Introduction to MUSIC OF THE 20TH CENTURY

  • The Revolutions: Paris, Vienna, America
  • Paris–Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky
  • Vienna–The Second Viennese School: Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern
  • America–Charles Ives
  • Modernism, impressionism, expressionism, atonality, serialism, microtonalism
  • Debussy, Nuages from Three Nocturnes [CD 5–11-16]

    Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Part I (excerpt) [CD 5–17-23]

    Schoenberg, Piano Concerto I (excerpt) [CD 5–10] and Pierrot Lunaire Nos. 18 "The Moonfleck," 19 "Serenade," 20 "Journey Home," 21 "O Ancient Scent" [CD 5–24-27]

    Berg, Wozzeck, Act III, scenes iii & iv [CD 5–28-32]

    Ives, "The Rockstrewn Hills " [CD 5–33-34]

    Peruvian raftpipe ensemble "Manuelita" [CD 5-35]

  • LISTEN, Unit V "The Twentieth Century" pp. 306-308
  • Ch. 19 "Prelude: Music and Modernism" pp. 309-322
  • Ch. 20 "The Early Twentieth Century" pp. 323-345 and "Colonization and Meeting of Cultures" pp. 346-347.
  • 5/22/01
  • Alternatives to modernism: Richard Strauss, Béla Bartók, Aaron Copland
  • Post-War Avant-Garde
  • THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

  • György Ligeti
  • Edgard Varèse
  • John Cage
  • George Crumb
  • Tania Léon
  • Sofia Gubaidalina
  • Philip Glass
  •  

    Strauss, Der Rosenkavalier, Act II, Presentation of the Rose [CD 5-18 to 20, Cass. 5A-6]

    Bartók, Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta [CD 5–36-42]

    Copland, Appalachian Spring, excerpts [CD 6–1-4]

    Webern, Five Pieces for Orchestra, IV [CD 6–5]

    Ligeti, Lux Aeterna [CD 6–6-9]

    Berio, Sinfonia, II [CD 6-16, Cass. 6A-3]

    Varèse, Poème électronique (excerpt) [CD 6–10]

    Crumb, Black Angels, Nos. 1 "Night of the Electric Insects," 2 "Sounds of Bones and Flutes," 3 "Lost Bells," 4 "Devil-music," 5 "Danse macabre" [CD 6–11-15]

    Léon, Kabiosile [CD 5–43-36]

    Gubaidalina, Pro et Contra, III [CD 6–16-21]

    Glass, Metamorphosis I [CD 6–22]

    Plains style Grass Dance Song and Navajo song "K’adnikini’ya" [CD 6–23-24]

  • LISTEN, Ch. 21 "Alternatives to Modernism" pp. 349-359
  • LISTEN, Ch. 22 "The Late Twentieth Century" pp. 360-379 and "Native American Music" pp. 380-382
  • 5/27/03

    AMERICAN MUSIC & THE AMERICAN 20th CENTURY

  • Early American music & other roots
  • Blues
  • Jazz
  • Pop vs. Art Music
  • FINAL CONCERT JOURNALS DUE

    Thomas, "If You Ever Been Down" Blues [CD 6–25]

    Ellington, "Conga Brava" [CD 6–26]

    Gershwin, Piano Concerto in F, III [CD 6–27-32]

    Bernstein, West Side Story (excerpts) [CD 6–33-34]

    Parker, "Out of Nowhere" [CD 6–35]

    Davis, "Bitches Brew" (excerpt) [CD 6–36]

    South African song "Anoku Gonda" (Linda) [CD 6–37

  • LISTEN, Ch. 23 "Music in America: Jazz" pp. 383-413 and "Global Music" pp. 414-416 and "Conclusion" p. 416
  • 5/29/03

    THE 21st CENTURY –Postmodern solutions

  • REVIEW GUIDE
  • 21st-c. Repertoire t.b.d.

    6/3/03

    FINAL EXAM

    the entire course


    Suggestions for Further Reading

  • Weiss & Taruskin, Music in the Western World: A History in Documents
  • Kenneth Levy, Music: A Listener's Introduction
  • Donald Jay Grout, A History of Western Music
  • Willi Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music
  • Michael Chanan, Musica Practica
  • Charles Rosen, The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Sonata Forms
  • Leon Plantinga, Romantic Music: A History of Musical Style in Nineteenth-Century Europe
  • Eric Salzman, Twentieth Century Music: An Introduction
  • Arnold Schoenberg, Style And Idea
  • John Cage, Silence