kitty Brazelton writing music NYU, History of Music Humanities, Columbia


Sonata Form: A Drama in Tonality


PREDECESSOR:

rounded binary form:

||:

A

:||:

B

A'

:||

T --->D

D--->T

T--->T

(where T=Tonic; D=Dominant)

I --->V

V--->I

I--->I

(where I=Tonic; V=Dominant)




SONATA* FORM:

||:

 Exposition:

:||



 1st theme


Bridge


2nd theme


Closing


I

I--->V or Key 2

V or Key 2

big cadence in V or Key 2

motivic
harmonically stable
homophonic




modulatory
not necessarily motivic
maybe polyphonic




motivic
harmonically stable
homophonic




usually homophonic
maybe fanfare-ish
or motivic references




||:

 Development:


 V or Key 2---> I

"development" of motives from 1st, 2nd, and sometimes Closing themes using fugal techniques of diminution, augmentation, transposition, retrograde, inversion, etc...tends to be more polyphonic than the more homophonic theme sections as a result...very modulatory, that's the point! Melodic sequencing of motivic material very likely during modulation.




Recapitulation:


a repeat of the Exposition with the following important differences


 1st theme


Bridge


2nd theme


Closing


I(as before)

I--->?--->I

I

big cadence in I


 (SOMETIMES NOT IN EXACTLY THE SAME ORDER)


Coda:

:||


literally a "tail", or an extra appendage...strange and new (maybe? you decide)
thematic and harmonic material to re-emphasize the real (this time) final cadence in the I

**











*











from "sonata-allegro form" which designated the form found in every sonata's opening allegro.


**


repeat not always taken–20th-c. performance practice and audiences prefer not to go back to development and recap after strong resolution created by harmonic and thematic return.




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